Sunday, 25 March 2018


Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 in his foreword to Verrier Elwin’s “The Philosophy for NEFA (The North-East Frontier Agency)”, has laid down in five principles, that is, “Panchasheela”, the policy of integration. The tribal “Panchasheela” as has been enunciated by him are as follows:
  i.      Nothing should be imposed on the tribal people. They must be allowed to develop along the lines of their own genius. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional arts and culture.
ii.      Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
iii.      Attempt must be made to train and build up a team of their own people to the work of administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will be of great help for them in the beginning. But too many outsiders must not be sent to the tribal territory.
iv.      Over-administering the tribal areas or overwhelming them with too many schemes evolved and not by statistics or the amount of money spent.
v.      The results of the work must be adjudged by the quality of the human character that is evolved and not by statistics or the amount of money spent.
The Minister of Home Affairs and the Minister of Community Development (under the Article 46 of the Constitution), set up 43 sub-multipurpose tribal blocks in the various States of India to promote the welfare and the integration of the tribals. Two Committees were set up one in May 1959 under the Chairmanship of the anthropologist Verrier Elwin and the other in April 1960 under the Presidentship of U.N. Dhebar, to examine the programmes and projects of these blocks. Both the Committees submitted their reports in 1960 and 1961 respectively. The reports have emphasized and amplified the five fundamental principles enunciated by Nehru in 1957.

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