Sunday, 25 July 2021

Urbanization Issues in India

Urbanization Issues in India

Since in our country, urbanization is unplanned due to uncontrolled migration. Due to unplanned urbanization, India is facing too much problem such as unemployment, electricity problem, pollution, social problems, improper sanitation facilities etc. Rapid rise in urban population in India is leading to many problems like increasing slums, decrease in standard of living in urban areas, also causing environmental damage. Following problems need to be highlighted.

  1. Housing: Urbanization attracts people to cities and towns which lead to high population increase. With the increase in the number of people living in urban centres, there is continued scarcity of houses. This is due to insufficient expansion space for housing and public utilities, poverty, unemployment, and costly building materials which can only be afforded by few individuals.

  2. Sanitation: Municipalities and municipal corporations in Indian cities are so riddled with maladministration that they have time for sanitation of their cities, particularly with regard to removing garbage, cleaning drains, and unclogging sewers. Sweepers rarely and reluctantly perform their assigned duties and every few months threaten to go on strike on the issue of wages, etc.

  3. Unemployment: The problem of joblessness is highest in urban areas and it is even higher among the educated people. It is estimated that more than half of unemployed youths around the globe live in metropolitan cities. And, as much as income in urban areas is high, the costs of living make the incomes seem horribly low. The increasing relocation of people from rural or developing areas to urban areas is the leading cause of urban unemployment.

  4. Poverty: Today roughly one-third of the urban population lives below poverty line. There are glaring disparities between haves and have-nots in urban areas. The most demanding of the urban challenges unquestionably is the challenge posed by poverty; the challenge of reducing exploitation, relieving misery and creating more human conditions for urban poor. There is rise in urban inequality, as per UN habitat report, 2010, urban in-equality in India rose from 34 to 38 % based on consumption in period of 1995 to 2005.

  5. Development of slums: The cost of living in urban areas is very high. When this is combined with random and unexpected growth as well as unemployment, there is the spread of unlawful resident settlements represented by slums and squatters. The growth of slums and squatters in urban areas is even further exacerbated by fast-paced industrialization, lack of developed land for housing, large influx of rural immigrants to the cities in search of better life, and the elevated prices of land beyond the reach of the urban poor.

  6. Environment: Our cities and towns are major polluters of the environment. Several cit­ies discharge 40 per cent to 60 per cent of their entire sewage and indus­trial effluents untreated into the nearby rivers. The smallest town contributes its share of garbage and excreta to the nearest waterway through its open drains. Urban industry pollutes the atmosphere with smoke and toxic gases from its chimneys./Areas recording higher levels of air pollution abound with many ailments which particularly affect chil­dren below five years and people above fifty years of age. The high synergistic effect of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, etc. causes many diseases. The ambient air quality in Delhi gives it the dubious distinction of being the fourth most polluted city in the world.

Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of rural migration & it is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Poverty, unemployment and underemployment among the rural immigrants, beggars, thefts, burglaries and other social evils are on rampage. Urban sprawl is rapidly encroaching the precious agricultural land. The urban population of India had already crossed the 285 million mark by 2001. By 2030, more than 50 per cent of India’s population is expected to live in urban areas.

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Sources

Rural and Urban Sociology (pp. 225-250) ~ Link

The problems and issues in urbanization in India-Dr. Venkatigalla Venkatesham ~ Link

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