Sunday, 14 April 2019


Pareto defined sociology by saying that it is that social science which studies irrational activities. For studying these activities he brings in use rational experimental method. Those activities which are rational, their study, Pareto says, is done by economics. Whatever behaviours are out of the field of rational activities, they are irrational and their study and only their study are done by sociology. Further to this, Pareto says that irrational activities are made of derivatives and residues. Going further when Pareto puts forward the theory of circulation of elites, he describes it through the medium of residues and derivatives.
Description of derivatives is when a person does his activities then society has some expectation from those activities. When there is a difference the expectation of the society and the person’s activities, then the person tries to present the reasonableness of his activities. Presenting this reasonableness only is derivatives.
There is a view point. A person does a tyrannous behaviour towards his wife; if given an opportunity, lays hands upon her. Society’s expectation is that he should not do such behaviour towards his wife. In such a situation, he cites Tulsi Das. This great poet has said, “Drum, boor, scheduled caste and women are worth beating”. This is giving derivation of one’s activity. On the other hand, a husband praises his wife with his full might, gets her whatever she wants. In general language it is called “slave to the wife”. Society’s expectation is that he should not bow himself so much before his wife. At the most, he should treat her equally. But he says that god lives where women are worshipped. Such saying is derivation. In derivation, person believes that whatever he does, i.e., his feelings, emotions etc. are all backed by rationality.
As is the process of Pareto’s theory building, like residue, he tells the classes of derivatives also. There are four classes of derivatives:
  i.  Assertions: For manifesting his sentiments humans take the help of assertions. He claims that whatever he has done is right. When he puts his assertion he also gives the threat of power. He puts his saying in a high pitched voice. Does up his fist and with all might, says his assertion to be right.
ii.  Authority: When people accept the assertion from the rational point of view then it becomes authority. One the society accepts that men have the right to beat his wife, this right becomes the authority. In this, it happens that in which field a person uses authority, his authority establishes in other fields too. For e.g., education minister is considered to be a man of authority in family planning too.
iii.  Accord with sentiments: These are those derivatives which a person presents to prove the reasonableness of any activity. Such kinds of derivatives are based on some feelings and activities of those feelings are only considered to be appropriate.
iv. Verbal proof: Such kind of behaviour that has no relation then with the actuality is accepted on oral saying. It includes false reasoning sophistry and double meaning talks which are not in accordance with actual facts and they are used only for proving the reasonableness of behaviour.
Pareto has written a lot about residues and derivatives in Treatise. When he describes derivatives, he also accepts that such reasons are not correct. These reasons only misguide the society. Despite of this drawback, social interworking of derivatives may not be ignored. Worldwide and especially in our country women liberation movements are going on, a big battle of theirs is on the controversies these derivatives only. On the death of husband wife becomes widow while on the death of wife husband re-marries. This entire system is based on derivatives. Many such viewpoints may be found in Epics, Upanishads and Brahmins which glorify widow life and that is why widows are suffering. This is the wonder of derivation.
He has tied the complete psychology in some important perceptions. For understanding Pareto’s theories, it is important to understand his explanation of sociology. There are some key concepts of this sociology: irrational activities, rational activities; objectivity, individuality; residues and derivatives. All these concepts are helpful in understanding Pareto’s theories also.
Pareto’s belief is that many derivatives are such that help in maintain unity in social system. Bogaurds, describing derivatives has said that whatever emotional or passionate behaviour humans do, establishes their reasonableness through derivatives. Pareto has written a lot about residues and derivatives in Treatise. When he describes derivatives, he also accepts that such reasons are not correct.

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