Wednesday, 13 March 2019

WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON SOCIOLOGY?

The industrial revolution had immense effects creating an unprecedented amount of change as well has having great implications on modern society. Where the once meticulous art of making goods and items by hand was the norm, this was quickly replaced with engine manufacturing allowing goods to be produced in large quantities and bringing about the development of factory organization. The emergence of the nuclear family as well as work force diversifications, are all but some of the implications of the industrial revolution.
One can say that Industrial Revolution was one the reasons why Sociology as a discipline emerged. Auguste Comte (1798–1857), widely considered the “father of sociology,” became interested in studying society because of the changes that took place as a result of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution.
People abandoned a life of agriculture and moved to cities to find factory jobs during Industrial Revolution. Comte looked at the extensive changes brought about by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution and tried to make sense of them. He felt that the social sciences that existed at the time, including political science and history, couldn’t adequately explain the chaos and upheaval he saw around him. He decided an entirely new science was needed. He called this new science sociology, which comes from the root word socius, a Latin word that means “companion” or “being with others.” Comte decided that to understand society, one had to follow certain procedures, which we know now as the scientific method. The scientific method is the use of systematic and specific procedures to test theories in psychology, the natural sciences, and other fields.
Harold Perkin, English Social Historian and founder of Social History Society observed, "The Industrial Revolution was no mere sequence of changes in industrial techniques and production, but a social revolution with social causes as well as profound social effects" (Society for the Study of Labour History,1986)
Today's large and urbanized cities are a reflection of the mass-migration that took place during the industrial revolution in which people needed to leave their families and communities in order to join the workforce moving from rural areas to urban areas This was further encouraged by government incentives which also led to the centralization of wealth. A dramatic change was therefore seen in the social structure of society. Prior to the industrial revolution life was lived within limited geographical boundaries, survival itself dependent on the success or failure of the harvest, and the organization of everyday existence dictated by natural light and the seasons. Moreover, the industrial revolution was unconditionally helpful to the development of the world from the 1800s all the way to the present day. Mass-production led to an abundance of goods. The textile industry improved due to faster manufacturing processes such as coal and steam power and other new machinery that led to an increase in the production of woven fabrics as well as an increase in the production of raw materials such as cotton, which led to the availability of inexpensive and affordable clothing
The effects of the industrial revolution are therefore immense and long-lasting which have shaped our modern society and improved our lives in many ways. However, along with the many improvements of the industrial revolution, the side-effects of industrialization are also evident today. With energy playing a vital role in powering the industrial revolution the end-result has been the inevitable consequence of pollution bringing about the start and conception of global warming due to carbon emissions, which is more evident today than ever. Prior to the industrial revolution the earth's atmosphere had a balanced amount of carbon dioxide compared to today. However, in today's growing economy the burning of fossil fuels for the provision of energy has been deemed necessary, making a change to the atmosphere inevitable. Global warming is increasingly becoming a global issue with its effects becoming more visible today than it was fifty years ago. This is seen in the increase of natural disasters and extreme weather conditions all stemming from climate change induced by global warming. Due to the need for mass-production coupled with the increase in population, agricultural methods have been transformed with the introduction of pesticides, insecticides and other chemicals posing potential threats to health and well-being. New agriculture methods also increased soil degeneration as well as destroying animal habitats to make room for more agricultural land (Orgcle Think Quest, 1999). However, the most prolific evidence of the Industrial Revolution's impact on the modern world is seen in the global growth in population during the twentieth century. The world population would take on exponential proportions, growing to six billion people just before the start of the twenty- first century which is a four hundred percent population increase in a single century. It has been two hundred and fifty years since the start of the industrial revolution and the world has seen the population increase by six billion people (Ecology, 2011). This population growth has led to poverty, increased levels of air pollution, limited housing due to densely populated areas and limited food supplies.
So the final argument varies from person to person who differs on the amount of positive and negative impact of Industrial Revolution but i would say most of it has been positive.

Source:
https://www.quora.com/What-was-the-impact-of-the-Industrial-Revolution-on-sociology

3 comments:

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